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Islamism

ΙΣΛΑΜΙΣΜΟΣ

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (This article is about the religion.)

 

Islam

Monotheistic religion founded by Muhammad.

Islam is an Abrahamic, monotheistic, universal religion teaching that there is only one God (Arabic: Allah), and that Muhammad is the messenger of God.[1][2]

It is the world's second-largest religion[3] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population,[4] most commonly known as Muslims.[5]

Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[3] Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique,[6] and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[2][7]

The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570 – 8 June 632 CE).

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.[8][9][10]

Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God.[11] Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell.[12][13]

Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law (sharia), which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.[14][15][16]

The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam.[17]

Aside from the theological narrative,[18][19][20] Islam is historically believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca,[21] and by the 8th century the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east.

The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing.[22][23][24]

The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire, traders and conversion to Islam by missionary activities (dawah).[25]

Most Muslims are of one of two denominations; Sunni (75–90%)[26] or Shia (10-20%).[27]

About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country;[28] 31% of Muslims live in South Asia,[29] the largest population of Muslims in the world;[30] 20% in the Middle East–North Africa,[31] where it is the dominant religion;[32] and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[33] Sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Russia.[34][35]

Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.[36][37][38]

 

Notes:

^ John L. Esposito (2009). "Islam. Overview". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001. ISBN 9780195305135. Profession of Faith [...] affirms Islam's absolute monotheism and acceptance of Muḥammad as the messenger of God, the last and final prophet.

^ Jump up to: a b F.E. Peters (2009). "Allāh". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001. ISBN 9780195305135. the Muslims' understanding of Allāh is based [...] on the Qurʿān's public witness. Allāh is Unique, the Creator, Sovereign, and Judge of humankind. It is Allāh who directs the universe through his direct action on nature and who has guided human history through his prophets, Abraham, with whom he made his covenant, Moses, Jesus, and Muḥammad, through all of whom he founded his chosen communities, the 'Peoples of the Book.'

^ Jump up to: a b "The Global Religious Landscape". 18 December 2012.

^ Jump up to: a b c d The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050, Pew Research Center, April 2, 2015, retrieved October 20, 2018

^ According to Oxford Dictionaries, "Muslim is the preferred term for 'follower of Islam,' although Moslem is also widely used."

^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). "Allah". Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-4381-2696-8.

^ İbrahim Özdemir (2014). "Environment". In Ibrahim Kalin (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref:oiso/9780199812578.001.0001. ISBN 9780199812578. When Meccan pagans demanded proofs, signs, or miracles for the existence of God, the Qurʾān's response was to direct their gaze at nature's complexity, regularity, and order. The early verses of the Qurʾān, therefore, reveal an invitation to examine and investigate the heavens and the earth, and everything that can be seen in the environment [...] The Qurʾān thus makes it clear that everything in Creation is a miraculous sign of God (āyah), inviting human beings to contemplate the Creator.

^ "People of the Book". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 2010-12-18.

^ Reeves, J.C. (2004). Bible and Qurʼān: Essays in scriptural intertextuality. Leiden [u.a.: Brill. p. 177.

^ Moghul, Haroon. "Why Muslims celebrate a Jewish holiday". CNN. Retrieved 2018-01-18.

^ Bennett (2010, p. 101)

^ "Eschatology – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-01-18.

^ "Paradise (Jannat)". Al-Islam.org. 2016-04-26.

^ Esposito (2002b, p. 17)

^ * Esposito (2002b, pp. 111–112, 118)

"Shari'ah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

^ Jump up to: a b c "British & World English: sharia". Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 December 2015.

^ Trofimov, Yaroslav (2008), The Siege of Mecca: The 1979 Uprising at Islam's Holiest Shrine, New York, p. 79, ISBN 978-0-307-47290-8

^ Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 12. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4.

^ Esposito (2002b, pp. 4–5)

^ Peters, F.E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-691-11553-5.

^ Watt, William Montgomery (2003). Islam and the Integration of Society. Psychology Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780415175876.

^ George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, pp. 245, 250, 256–257. New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-8023-7.

^ King, David A. (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks". Isis. 74 (4): 531–555. doi:10.1086/353360.

^ Hassan, Ahmad Y (1996). "Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century". In Sharifah Shifa Al-Attas (ed.). Islam and the Challenge of Modernity, Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on Islam and the Challenge of Modernity: Historical and Contemporary Contexts, Kuala Lumpur, August 1–5, 1994. International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC). pp. 351–399. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.

^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 125–258

^ Jump up to: a b

"Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2013-09-24. Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims.

Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."

"Sunni". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 20, 2012. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, comprising about 85% of the world's over 1.5 billion Muslims.

"Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-08-25. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population...

^ Jump up to: a b See

"Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2013-09-24. The Pew Forum's estimate of the Shia population (10–13%) is in keeping with previous estimates, which generally have been in the range of 10–15%. Some previous estimates, however, have placed the number of Shias at nearly 20% of the world's Muslim population.

"Shia". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved December 5, 2011. Shi'a Islam is the second largest branch of the tradition, with up to 200 million followers who comprise around 15% of all Muslims worldwide...

"Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-08-25. Shia Islam represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide...

^ "10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050date=2015-04-02". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved 2017-02-07.

^ Pechilis, Karen; Raj, Selva J. (2013). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Routledge. p. 193. ISBN 9780415448512.

^ Diplomat, Akhilesh Pillalamarri, The. "How South Asia Will Save Global Islam". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2017-02-07.

^ "Middle East-North Africa Overview". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2018-01-18.

^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 22 December 2011.

^ "Region: Sub-Saharan Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 22 December 2011.

^ "Muslim Population by Country". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.

^ "Islam in Russia". www.aljazeera.com.

^ "Main Factors Driving Population Growth". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2018-10-23.

^ Burke, Daniel (April 4, 2015). "The world's fastest-growing religion is ..." CNN. Retrieved 18 April 2015.

^ Jump up to: a b c Lippman, Thomas W. (2008-04-07). "No God But God". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2013-09-24. Islam is the youngest, the fastest growing, and in many ways the least complicated of the world's great monotheistic faiths. It is based on its own holy book, but it is also a direct descendant of Judaism and Christianity, incorporating some of the teachings of those religions—modifying some and rejecting others.